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IMPORTANT !! Hydrometers do NOT measure sugar.
Read this to understand the data in the table:
The Hydrometer method measures a change in density and I assume that the density change is caused by the addition of sugar.
The Hydrometer method does not measure actual sugar, so it is possible that something other then sugar has been added to the rum after distillation that causes the change in density.
If the producer labels their products as rum, they are only allowed to add sugar and caramel color (EU law).
The calculation also has to rely on the fact that the %abv listed on the label is correct. If the producers has made a proofing error so the true %abv of the rum is different then listed on the label, the calculation's below will not be accurate.
According to EU law, the %abv listed on the label has to within +/- 0.3% accurracy.
Rums that's being listed with 0-5 g/L below should be considered to have no sugar added. Long aging periods (or new innovative aging by Lost Spirits Distillery) has an impact on the density. I have seen measurements that shows 3-4g/L in rums that have no sugar added. Because of that, I have made the decision to consider all rums in the 0-5 g/L range as unsweetend with sugar.
Latest table update: Dec 4th 2018
Sorted by Name:
|RUM||%ABV label||Hydrometer Measurement/Reading||Sugar g/L|
|1423 3rd Edt. Panama 17y||43,0||40,3||10|
|A.H.Riise Centennial Celebration||45,0||23,5||76|
|A.H.Riise Non-Plus Ultra Very Rare Rum||42,0||16,2||82|
|A.H.Riise Royal Danish Navy Rom||40,0||<19||>66|
|A.H.Riise Royal Danish Navy Rom||55,0||33||96|
|A.H.Riise XO Port Cask Finish||45,0||32,4||48|
|Angostura Cask no.1 1st edt.||40,0||30,7||32|
|Angostura Cask no.1 Oloroso Sherry cask||40,0||39,4||0-5|
|Appleton Estate 12||43,0||42,7||0-5|
|Appleton Estate 21||43,0||42,8||0-5|
|Atlantico Private Cask||40,0||33,2||25|
|Bacardi Gran Reserva||40,0||35,3||17|
|Bacardi Reserva Limitada||40,0||36,0||15|
|Berrys´ Caribbean Rum XO||46,0||44,5||7|
|Berrys´ Own Selection Finest Jamaican Rum 1990||46,0||46,3||0-5|
|Berrys´ Own Selection Finest Nicaraguan Rum 1999||46,0||46,3||0-5|
|Berrys´ Reserve Demerara Rum 1975 (Port Morant)||46,0||44,8||6|
|Braunstein Sankt Croix||40,0||40,6||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Caroni 1974||46,0||46,5||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Caroni 1996||43,0||43,5||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Fine Barbados Rum 2003||43,0||43,0||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Jamaican Rum 2002||43,0||43,2||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Port Morant Demerara 1990 25y||46,0||46,0||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Port Morant Demerara 1999||46,0||45,2||0-5|
|Bristol Classis Rum Rockley Still 1986 (Sherry Finish)||46,0||42,6||15|
|Brugal Anejo Reserva||38,0||36,1||7|
|Brugal Especial (old)||40,0||38,7||0-5|
|Brugal Extra Viejo||38,0||36,0||7|
|Brugal Extra Viejo Reserva||38,0||36,7||0-5|
|Brugal Ron Extra Viejo||38,0||36,1||7|
|Brugal Siglo de Oro||40,0||38,1||8|
|Cadenhead's BBR Blackrock 11y||59,1||58,8||0-5|
|Captain Morgan Private Stock||40,0||26,4||45|
|Caribbean Reserve, Enmore distillery Demerara 1998||46,0||45,8||0-5|
|Carta Vieja Golden Cask Solera 18||40,0||38,1||7|
|Carta Vieja Golden Cask Solera 18||40,0||38,1||7|
|Cihuatan Solera 8 Gran Reserva||40,0||35,6||17|
|Clement Single Cask Très vieux rhum 100% Canne Bleue||43,6||42,1||6|
|Clement Single Cask Très vieux rhum Vanille intense||42,8||42,2||0-5|
|Clement VSOP 125th anniv.||40,0||39,9||0-5|
|Companie Des Indes Barbados Foursquare 16y||60,0||60,0||0-5|
|Companie Des Indes Jamaica Hampden 14y||58,0||58,0||0-5|
|Companie Des Indes Jamaica Worthy Park 7y||43,0||43,0||0-5|
|Conde de Cuba 15 anos||38,0||35,4||9|
|Conde de Cuba 5 anos||38,0||36,9||0-5|
|Demerara Rum 1971 Gordon & Macphail||50,0||46,0||19|
|Depaz Grande Reserve XO||45,0||44,6||0-5|
|Dictador XO Perpetual||40,0||39,3||0-5|
|Dictador XO Insolent||40,0||39,1||0-5|
|Diplomatico Blanco Reserve||40,0||38,1||8|
|Diplomatico Reserva Exclusiva||40,0||27,7||41|
|Diplomatico Single Vintage 1997||43,0||38,1||19|
|Diplomatico Single Vintage 2000||43,0||38,1||20|
|Diplomatico Single Vintage 2001||43,0||37,5||22|
|Dos Maderas Luxus||40,0||29,9||35|
|Dos Maderas PX 5+5||40,0||29,7||36|
|Edward Gunpowder Spiced Rum||46,0||46,0||0-5|
|El Dorado 5||40,0||37,0||12|
|El Dorado 8||40,0||35,8||15|
|El Dorado 12||40,0||29,7||36|
|El Dorado 15||43,0||33,4||37|
|El Dorado 21||43,0||38,8||16|
|El Dorado 25 1980||43,0||28,6||51|
|El Dorado 25 1986||43,0||32,8||39|
|El Dorado 25 1988||43,0||30,0||47|
|El Dorado Rare Collection Enmore 1993||56,5||55,7||0-5|
|El Dorado Rare Collection Enmore 1996||57,2||55,7||8|
|El Dorado Rare Collection Port Mourant 1997||57,9||57,0||0-5|
|El Dorado Rare Collection Port Mourant 1999||61,4||61,0||0-5|
|El Dorado Rare Collection Versailles 2002||63,0||61,0||11|
|El Dorado Single Barrel EHP||40,0||40,0||0-5|
|El Dorado Single Barrel ICBU||40,0||39,0||0-5|
|El Dorado Single Barrel PM||40,0||40,0||0-5|
|El Dorado Spiced||37,5||31,1||22|
|English Harbour Rum 1981||40,0||37,0||12|
|English Spirit Distillery - Old Salt Rum||42,0||40,5||6|
|Foursquare ECS series 2005||59,0||58,9||0-5|
|Foursquare ECS series Port Cask Finish||40,0||39,6||0-5|
|Foursquare ECS series PREMISE||46,0||46,1||0-5|
|Foursquare ECS series Zinfandel||43,0||42,9||0-5|
|Gold of Mauritius||40,0||31,6||30|
|Havana Club 3||40,0||39,5||0-5|
|Havana Club 15||40,0||38,1||8|
|Havana Club Especial||40,0||34,0||22|
|Havana Club Seleccion de Maestros||45,0||43,5||7|
|Havana Club Tributo 2018||40,0||37,5||9|
|Havana Club Union||40,0||38,0||8|
|Havana Club Maximo||40,0||35,8||16|
|Holey Dollar Rum Silver Coin||40,0||40,0||0-5|
|HSE 1998 Single Cask btl. 2009||47,8||46,9||0-5|
|HSE 1998 Single Cask btl. 2013||47,8||46,9||0-5|
|HSE 2002 Single Malt Finish||44,0||43,7||0-5|
|HSE 2005 Sherry Finish (PX) btl.2013||46,0||45,6||0-5|
|HSE 2005 Single Malt Finish btl.2013||44,0||43,7||0-5|
|HSE Black Sheriff||40,0||39,5||0-5|
|HSE Extra Vieux XO||43,0||42,2||0-5|
|HSE Rhum Blanc||50,0||49,5||0-5|
|John Milroy, Finest Jamaican Rum 26y Rare old rum||50,0||49,9||0-5|
|Juuls Flying No.11 Jamaica 30y||61,6||61,2||0-5|
|Juuls Ping No.9 Jamaica 1977 36y||61,0||60,7||0-5|
|Kraken Spiced Rum||40,0||33,0||26|
|La Confrerie du Rhum - Cuvée 1 Barbados||43,0||43,1||0-5|
|La Confrerie du Rhum - Cuvée 2 Guadeloupe||42,0||42,2||0-5|
|La Mauny Extra Rubis||42,0||40,6||0-5|
|La Mauny Extra Saphir||40,0||38,8||0-5|
|La Mauny Rhum vieux 1995||42,0||41,1||0-5|
|La Mauny X.O.||40,0||39,7||0-5|
|Lost Spirits Distillery Navy Style||55,0||54,0||0-5|
|Mombacho Ron 15 year||43,0||40,5||10|
|Mount Gay 1703||43,0||42,9||0-5|
|Noordbo Handelen - Fiji 2003||63,6||63,1||0-5|
|Ocean's 7 Mellow||40,0||33,8||23|
|Ocean's Rum Atlantic Edition||43,0||39,9||12|
|Old Jamaica 1982||48,0||48,0||0-5|
|Opthimus 15 OportO||43,0||35,8||29|
|Opthimus 25 Malt Whisky (Tomatin)||43,0||34,1||34|
|Plantation Barbados 15 year Single Cask Sherry Finish||42,0||37,7||17|
|Plantation Belize 7 Single Cask||43,0||37,9||20|
|Plantation Cuba 1998 Single Cask||42,0||37,4||18|
|Plantation Extreme No.1 Barbados 2005 11y||56,3||55,0||7|
|Plantation Extreme No.1 St.Lucia 2005 11y||53,8||52,0||9|
|Plantation Extreme No.2 Fiji 16y||61,1||61,2||0-5|
|Plantation Extreme No.2 Guyana 18y||59,7||59,2||0-5|
|Plantation Grenada 1996 Single Cask||42,0||35,7||24|
|Plantation Grenada 1998 Old Reserve||42,0||36,9||20|
|Plantation Grenada 2003 Old Reserve||42,0||37,9||16|
|Plantation Guadeloupe 1998 Single Cask Sauternes||42,0||37,4||18|
|Plantation Guatemala Gran Anejo||42,0||37,6||17|
|Plantation Guatemala XO Single Cask Denmark||40,0||34,9||19|
|Plantation Guyana 1988 Single Cask||42,0||38,0||16|
|Plantation Guyana 2005 Old Reserve||45,0||40,5||19|
|Plantation Jamaica/Guyana 1991 Single Cask||43,0||36,8||24|
|Plantation Jamaica 1992 Single Cask||42,0||39,0||12|
|Plantation Jamaica 1999 Single Cask Port||45,0||41,0||17|
|Plantation Jamaica 2000 Old Reserve||42,0||37,9||16|
|Plantation Martinique 2002 Single Cask||42,0||39,2||11|
|Plantation Panama 2002 Old Reserve||42,0||37,4||18|
|Plantation Trinidad 1989 Single Cask Abel finish||45,0||35,2||39|
|Plantation Trinidad 1997 Single Cask||43,0||40,8||9|
|Plantation Trinidad 1998 Single Cask Porto||42,0||37,8||17|
|Plantation Trinidad 1999 Single Cask Banyuls||42,0||36,9||19|
|Plantation Trinidad 1999 Single Cask Sherry||43,0||38,7||17|
|Plantation Trinidad 1999 Single Cask Sherry||43,0||39,6||13|
|Plantation Trinidad 2002 Single Cask Marsala||42,0||37,5||18|
|Plantation XO 20th Anniv.||40,0||33,5||24|
|Puntacana Club XOX 50 anniversary||40,0||33,7||23|
|Pusser's - Red label||42,0||38,5||6|
|Pusser's - Blue Label||54,5||50,3||20|
|Pusser's - Blue label||75,0||74,1||6|
|Pusser's 15 year||40,0||33,5||24|
|Pusser's Decanter John Paul Jones||47,8||39,0||38|
|Pusser's Decanter Yachting||42,0||37,2||19|
|Pyrat XO Reserve||40,0||33,6||24|
|Pyrat XO Reserve Planters Gold||40,0||26,4||45|
|R.L. Seale's 10y||43,0||42,5||0-5|
|R.L. Seale's 10y||46,0||45,8||0-5|
|Renegade Rum Company Barbados (Blackrock)||46,0||45,4||0-5|
|Renegade Rum Company Guyana (PM)||46,0||45,2||0-5|
|Renegade Rum Company Jamaica (Monymusk)||46,0||45,3||0-5|
|Renegade Rum Company Trinidad 1991 17y||46,0||45,9||0-5|
|Rhum J.M 1997 Rhum Vieux||48,8||49,0||0-5|
|Rhum J.M 1998||43,7||43,5||0-5|
|Rhum J.M 2003||44,8||43,6||0-5|
|Rhum J.M Armagnac cask - btl.2015||41,5||41,5||0-5|
|Rhum J.M Cuvée 1845||42,0||41,4||0-5|
|Ron Abuelo Anejo||40,0||32,4||27|
|Ron Abuelo Anejo 7||40,0||34,3||20|
|Ron Abuelo Anejo 12||40,0||32,1||29|
|Ron Abuelo Centuria||40,0||34,5||20|
|Ron Barceló Imperial Premium||43,0||39,0||16|
|Ron Barco 15||40,0||34,5||20|
|Ron Botran Solera 1893 (old)||40,0||38,5||0-5|
|Ron Botran Solera 1893 Sistema 18 Solera||40,0||39,0||0-5|
|Ron Cartavio XO||40,0||32,0||29|
|Ron Centenario 30||40,0||27,0||44|
|Ron Cubaney Centenario||41,0||34,0||26|
|Ron Cubay Anejo||38,0||36,4||6|
|Ron Esclavo XO 1423||42,0||28,8||48|
|Ron Flor de Cana 12y||40,0||40,5||0-5|
|Ron Maestro Botero Reserva Especial||35,0||35,3||0-5|
|Ron Matusalem Gran Reserva Solera 15||40,0||38,8||0-5|
|Ron Millonario 10 Anivesario Reserva||40,0||31,0||32|
|Ron Millonario Solera 15||40,0||30,0||35|
|Ron Millonario XO||40,0||27,6||42|
|Ron Pampero Aniversary||40,0||35,7||16|
|Ron Pampero Blanco||37,5||37,5||0-5|
|Ron Quorhum 30||40,0||30,3||34|
|Ron Roble Vejo Ultra Anejo||40,0||37,5||10|
|Ron Santiago de Cuba 12||40,0||38,5||0-5|
|Ron Santiago de Cuba 20||40,0||38,6||0-5|
|Ron Santiago de Cuba 25||40,0||38,7||0-5|
|Ron Santiago de Cuba Anejo||38,0||37,3||0-5|
|Ron Santiago de Cuba Extra Anejo 485 anniv.||40,0||38,2||7|
|Ron Viejo de Caldas Gran Reserva Especial||40,0||40,0||0-5|
|Ron Zacapa 23 anos White Label||40,0||26,9||44|
|Ron Zacapa Black Label||40,0||27,0||44|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario Sistema Solera 23||40,0||28,9||38|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario Etiqueta Negra||43,0||35,8||28|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario Reserva Limitada 2013||45,0||41,1||17|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario XO||40,0||33,0||26|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario XO Premio Platino||40,0||28,0||41|
|Rum Agricola de Maderia Signature Series (David Staffa cask 193)||53,7||53,6||0-5|
|Rum Agricola de Maderia Signature Series (David Staffa cask 240)||54,6||54,2||0-5|
|Rum Club DA (Dark & Aged)||42,2||38,5||14|
|Rum Club LD (Light & Dry)||42,2||42,2||0-5|
|Rum Club PG (Pungent & Geeky)||47,0||44,6||11|
|Rum Club SR (Spiced & Rich)||42,2||38,0||16|
|Rum Company 10y||40,0||33,0||26|
|Rum Company 15y||42,0||38,0||16|
|Rum Company Aficionado||40,0||32,4||28|
|Rum Company Old Guadeloupe Calvados||43,0||39,6||14|
|Rum Company Special Cask 1423 25y||43,0||36,2||27|
|Rum Nation Barbados 10y 2014||40,0||36,2||14|
|Rum Nation Barbados 2001 - btl.2011||40,0||37,5||10|
|Rum Nation Caroni 1998 2014 rel 2nd batch||55,0||52,6||12|
|Rum Nation Demerara 1975 31y||43,0||38,2||19|
|Rum Nation Demerara 1985||43,0||38,4||18|
|Rum Nation Demerara 1990 23y||45,0||40,2||20|
|Rum Nation Demerara 1990 25y||45,0||43,7||6|
|Rum Nation Demerara No.14||40,0||35,5||17|
|Rum Nation Guatemala||40,0||27,1||43|
|Rum Nation Jamaica 1985 25y||43,0||40,6||9|
|Rum Nation Jamaica 1990 23y||45,0||41,2||16|
|Rum Nation Jamaica 1991 25y||55,7||55,2||0-5|
|Rum Nation Jamaica 8y 2015 Oloroso finish||50,0||49,4||0-5|
|Rum Nation Jamaica Pot Still 2014 rel.||57,0||56,3||0-5|
|Rum Nation Martinique Anniv Edt. 12y||43,0||42,1||0-5|
|Rum Nation Martinique Hors d'Age 2013 rel.||43,0||42,7||0-5|
|Rum Nation Panama 21y||40,0||34,5||20|
|Rum Nation Peruano 8y 2014 rel.||42,0||37,1||19|
|Rum Nation Rare Rums Caroni 21y||59,2||58,7||0-5|
|Rum Nation Rare Rums Engenho Novo 2009-2017||52,0||51,6||0-5|
|Rum Nation Rare Rums Hampden||66,3||66,4||0-5|
|Rum Nation Rare Rums Savanna||54,2||54,0||0-5|
|Rum Nation Reunion 7y 2016 release||45,0||44,6||0-5|
|Saint James 15y||43,0||42,2||0-5|
|Saint James Cuvée 1765||42,0||41,3||0-5|
|Saint James Reserve||43,0||42,3||0-5|
|Samaroli Jamaica 2000 Rhapsody||45,0||45,0||0-5|
|Samaroli Nicaragua 1995||45,0||45,2||0-5|
|Santa Teresa Bicentenario A.J.Vollmer||40,0||37,3||11|
|Secret Treasures Old Guadeloupe 1992||42,0||42,0||0-5|
|Skotlander Rum I||40,0||39,8||0-5|
|Smith & Cross||57,0||57,0||0-5|
|St. Lucia Distillers 1931 82anv. 3rd edt.||43,0||38,7||17|
|St. Lucia Distillers 1931 85anv. 6th edt.||46,0||45,7||0-5|
|St. Nicholas Abbey 5y||40,0||41,1||0-5|
|St. Nicholas Abbey 12y||40,0||40,9||0-5|
|St. Nicholas Abbey 15y||40,0||41,8||0-5|
|Tanduay Rum 1854||40,0||39,8||0-5|
|The Real McCoy 3y||40,0||40,4||0-5|
|The Real McCoy 5y||40,0||40,2||0-5|
|The Real McCoy 12y||40,0||40,4||0-5|
|Trois Rivières 8 Ans d'Age||42,0||40,8||0-5|
|Trois Rivières Rhum Vieux 5 ans||40,0||39,5||0-5|
|Trois Rivières Millesime 1999||42,0||42,0||0-5|
|Velier Albion 1994 17y||60,4||60,4||0-5|
|Velier Blairmont 1991||56,0||57,0||0-5|
|Velier Caroni 1994||62,3||63,1||0-5|
|Velier Enmore 1995 16y||61,2||60,9||0-5|
|Velier Enmore and Port Mourant 1998 EHPM||62,2||61,6||0-5|
|Velier Port Mourant 1975||56,7||56,0||0-5|
|Velier Port Mourant 1993||65,0||67,0||0-5|
|Velier Port Mourant 1997 15y||65,7||65,2||0-5|
|Velier UF30E 1985||60,7||60,3||0-5|
|William Hinton Rum 6y (Carcavelos)||42,0||40,7||0-5|
|William Hinton Rum 6y (Maldita craft beer)||42,0||41,1||0-5|
|XM Special 12||40,0||35,5||17|
IMPORTANT: The measurements listed BELOW are based on sample bottles send to me. Since I don't own the rum tested ( I don't have the bottle ), I have no way of knowing if the sample has been altered before it was send to me. I have however made the decision to publish the results anyway. You must however be aware that these Sugar g/L calculations (below), might not be correct.
|RUM (SAMPLE)||%ABV label||Hydrometer Measurement/Reading||Sugar g/L|
|Cadenhead's AWM Enmore 18y 1988||63,3||62,1||6|
|Domaine De Courcelles Guadeloupe 1972-2003-2005||54,0||53,2||0-5|
|Isautier 15 ans||40,0||39,3||0-5|
|La Favorite Coeur de Rhum||40,0||39,3||0-5|
|La Favorite Cuvée du Chateau 2000||43,0||41,8||0-5|
|La Favorite Cuvée d’exception Privilège||40,0||26,5||45|
|La Favorite Cuvée Spéciale des Cavistes||42,5||29,2||49|
|Our Rum & Spirits - Barbados WIRD 14y||43,0||42,8||0-5|
|Our Rum & Spirits - Guyana Enmore/Versailles||61,2||59,9||6|
|Rhum J.M 1997||44,2||43,4||0-5|
|Rhum J.M 2000||47,2||46,7||0-5|
|Rhum J.M Multimillesimes||42,5||41,9||0-5|
|Rhum Nokito (1920-1930)||43,0||42,6||0-5|
|Ron Aldea Cana Pura||42,0||40,9||0-5|
|Ron Aldea Dark 8y||40,0||27,9||41|
|Ron Aldea Familia 15y||40,0||34,7||20|
|Ron Aldea Superior 10y||40,0||33,9||22|
|Ron Aldea Tradicion 1991||42,0||35,0||27|
|Savanna Lotan 7 ans 2002||46,0||45,7||0-5|
|Trois Rivières 1953||45,0||44,3||0-5|
|Velier Enmore 1987||56,6||58,8||0-5|
|Velier LBI 1985||40,0||35,8||16|
|Velier MG 9 ans||49,0||47,9||0-5|
I've received a few questions about the method I use to determine the sugar content in Rum (what we assume to be sugar), so I thought that I would write a detailed description on the method and also give some background info.
When measuring the Alcohol content in a Liquid (in this case Rum), there are a few ways to do it. The most simple way is to use a Hydrometer which has a scale showing the alcohol by volume in % (also called %ABV). This type of Hydrometer is also refferred to as an Alcoholmeter. A Hydrometer works according to Archimedes law, which states:
Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
So when the Hydrometer is put into the rum, it start to sink towards the bottom due to the weight of the Hydrometer. The "Glass bubble" on the Hydrometer, displaces the rum as it sinks,
and the weight of the rum it displaces, is the amount of upward force that occurs on the Hydrometer (Pushing the Hydrometer upwards). When the Hydrometer sinks to the level where the upward
force (due to displaced rum), and the downward force (due to the weight of the Hydrometer), are identical, the Hydrometer will level out and stay at that level. When this level is reached and the Hydrometer is not moving,
the %ABV level is read on the scale at the top of the beaker (the surface of the Rum). If you take two rums with different %ABV (eg. 40% and 60%), the 40% rum has a higher density (more heavy, due to less Alcohol) compared
to the 60% rum which has a lower density. So in the 60% rum, the Hydrometer will sink further into the rum, compared to the 40% rum, before it levels out and stop sinking.
Why this long description of how a Hydrometer works? Well its all about getting an understanding about density. In a Water/Alcohol solution, the density depends on the amount of Water (Higher density then alcohol) compared to Alcohol (Lower density then Water). What happens to a Rum when sugar (or something else) is added. In case of sugar, the density of the Rum increases, causing the weight of the rum to increase. So if you take a 40%ABV rum, and add sugar to it, the %ABV is still 40%ABV but due to the higher density, when measurements are done with a Hydrometer, you get an incorrect reading. The upward force applied to the Hydrometer is higher because the density of the rum increase when sugar is added. As a result, the Hydrometer does not sink to the correct level before it stops, and the reading on the Hydrometer shows an incorrect %ABV.
How does this correlate into sugar added then?
If we have a table that list the density of a liquid when sugar is added, and another table that lists the density of alcohol at different %ABV, we can use that information to create a conversion table. A description of the conversion table and the math behind it, will follow further down in this article.
All I need to get an estimated sugar added i g/L is the following:
1. Read the %ABV listed on the Rum bottle label (According to EU law, this listed value must be within 0,3% accurracy of the real %ABV of the Rum).
2. Measure the %ABV of the Rum using a Hydrometer (Understanding that if something is added to the Rum, the measurement will give a wrong value as described above). This must be done at 20°C since the Hydrometer is calibrated to that temperature. In case the temperature differs, I have a correction table to adjust the measurement.
3. Lookup in the table I created, using the values obtained in step 1 and 2 above.
The following assumptions is important to understand:
1. I assume that those rums, that results in a different %ABV (What's written on the label compared with the Hydrometer measurement), has something added.
Something has caused the density of the rum to change. If we look at EU document 110 from 2008 which holds the definition of Rum, it is allowed to "Sweeten",
Add caramel for colouring, but Flavouring is not allowed. So given those facts, I can only assume, that it's the "Sweeten" that impact the density.
Aging in oak barrels, also add "something" to the rum (wood extracts), but according to information I have received from Richard Seale at Foursquare Distillery (Barbados),
this will only have very little impact (resulting in a maximum of 3g/L miscalculation). (Update: Measurements has shown up to 5g/L for a specific rum from Lost Spirits Distillery).
2. The table I use to in my calculation, which lists density change in a liquid when sugar is added, is based on a solution between water and sugar. In rum we have a Water and Alcohol solution. The density of the two solutions (Water/Sugar and Water/Alcohol/Sugar) are different, but my calculations is about change in density, and not the fixed values at different solutions. So I assume that the density change is identical (checking my measurements with measurements done by Swedish state controlled Systembolaget and Finnish Alko, shows almost identical measurements).
3. The values for density change in a liquid when sugar is added, is not 100% linear, but very close to (in the range I use for my calculations). I assume that the density increase is linear in my calculations.
These 3 assumptions are the reason why I lists my results with the word "Estimated" sugar added.
Creating the conversion table.
The first table I use for the conversion table, is the document that describes the density change in a water/sugar solution as sugar level increases. This is described in Circular of the National Bureau of standards C440, Polarimetry, Saccharimetry and the sugars by Frederick J.Bates and Associates (issued May 1, 1942). From the document, I’ve used the first column (% of sucrose by weight (brix)) and the 3rd column (Apparent specific gravity at 20C/20C)
The values is used to calculate the average increase in gravity pr. Brix degree change. 1 degree brix is approx. 10g sugar/L. Since the rum we want to measure most likely has below 100g/L, I have chosen to do the average density change for the brix range 0-10 brix (approx. 0-100g/L sugar added). Within that range, the average density increase/Brix change is 4,00331 (Value used in formula later on).
The second table used for the conversion table is the document that describes the density of a water/alcohol solution. This is described in the document called Tables Alcoométriques internationales (International Alcoholmetric Tables). From the document, I’ve used table IVa on page 51-53 to get a listing of the density of the rum at different % levels.
Input to the formula (with example):
40%ABV rum that with a Hydrometer has a "wrong" value of 35%ABV.
At 40%ABV the density of the Rum is: 948,05 kg/m3
At 35%ABV the density of the Rum is: 955,59 kg/m3
The average density increase pr brix: 4,00331
Calculation is 100mL solution, so multiply with factor 10 to get value in g/L
The result is:
(("Density Hydrometer %ABV" - "Density label %ABV") / "Average density increase pr. brix" ) * 10 = Sugar added in g/L
((955,59 - 948,05) / 4,00331) * 10 = 18,8 g/L
The conversion table I've produced, are listed in the picture below.
Validating the method.
The Swedish state controlled "Systembolaget" and the Finnish "Alko" have published values about the amount of sugar in some rums (listed in g/L). Not knowing the method used for these measurements, I can only assume that these measurements has been done in a lab with highend equipment, giving accurate results. With my simple Hydrometer measurements and the conversion table, I've measured some of the same rums, and these are the results:
|Angostura 1824 Aged 12 years||17||18|
|Botran Solera 1893 Gran Reserva Anejo||9||9|
|Diplomatico Reserva 8 anos||7||9|
|Diplomatico Reserva Exclusiva 12 anos||41||30|
|El Dorado 12 year old||45||36|
|El Dorado 15 year old||31||37|
|Plantation Jamaica Old Reserve 2000||17||16|
|Ron Zacapa Centenario 23||45/20||38|
Another way to validate the method, is by adding a specific amount of cane sugar to a white rum which have no sugar added to start with. In the example below, a cheap white supermarket rum which has an %ABV of 37,5%, was used. 200mL of the rum was poured into a beaker, and a picture was taken, showing that the Hydrometer sink to the bottom. 8 gram of cane sugar (8g/200mL = 40g/L) was added to the white rum and dissolved by stirring the rum for a few minutes. After the sugar had dissolved into the rum, the Hydrometer was placed back into the rum and a second picture was taken. On the second picture, the Hydrometer does not sink to the bottom, but stays at the surface. In both cases the rum is 37,5% ABV, but the density change due to added sugar, causes the Hydrometer to measure a wrong value. The "wrong" value measured are 26,4% ABV and this was measured at 24°C so we have to temperature correct the measurement using a correction table. 26,4%@24°C = 25%@20°C , looking up in the Sugar g/L conversion table I've created, 37,5% on the label and 25% incorrect Hydrometer measurement gives an exact match to the expected 40g/L sugar added.
References to EU documents:
Accuracy of %ABV listed on the label:
Annex XII ALCOHOLIC STRENGTH
4.Any other beverages containing more than 1,2 % by volume of alcohol 0,3 % vol.
Sugar is allowed in rum:
Article 5 General rules
1 (e) solely be sweetened to round off the final taste of the product, according to Annex I(3). The maximum level for the products used for rounding off listed under Annex I(3)(a) to (f) shall be decided upon in accordance with the regulatory procedure with scrutiny referred to in Article 25(3). The particular legislation of the Member States shall be taken into account.
Definition of rum:
ANNEX II SPIRIT DRINKS 1(a-f)
Categories of spirit drinks
(a) Rum is:
(i) a spirit drink produced exclusively by alcoholic fermentation and distillation, either from molasses or syrup produced in the manufacture of cane sugar or from sugar-cane juice itself and distilled at less than 96 % vol. so that the distillate has the discernible specific organoleptic characteristics of rum, or
(ii) a spirit drink produced exclusively by alcoholic fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice which has the aromatic characteristics specific to rum and a volatile substances content equal to or exceeding 225 grams per hectolitre of 100 % vol. alcohol. This spirit may be placed on the market with the word ‘agricultural’ qualifying the sales denomination ‘rum’ accompanied by any of the geographical indications of the French Overseas Departments and the Autonomous Region of Madeira as registered in Annex III.
(b) The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of rum shall be 37,5 %.
(c) No addition of alcohol as defined in Annex I(5), diluted or not, shall take place.
(d) Rum shall not be flavoured.
(e) Rum may only contain added caramel as a means to adapt colour.
(f) The word ‘traditionnel’ may supplement any of the geographical indications mentioned in category 1 of Annex III where the rum is produced by distillation at less than 90 % vol., after alcoholic fermentation of alcohol-producing materials originating exclusively in the place of production considered. This rum must have a volatile substances content equal to or exceeding 225 grams per hectolitre of 100 % vol. alcohol and must not be sweetened. The use of the word ‘traditionnel’ does not prevent the use of the terms ‘from sugar production’ or ‘agricultural’ which may be added to the sales denomination ‘rum’ and to geographical indications.
This provision shall not affect the use of the word ‘traditionnel’ for all products not covered by this provision, according to their own specific criteria.
People have asked if I would provide some simple instructions on how I measure the Sugar content in Rum. Below are listed the few simple steps needed to make an estimated calculation.
You will need the following:
The steps are as follows:
1. Pour 21cl of rum into the beaker. Measure the temperature to make sure it's 20 degree Celsius (if not, you have two options, cool/heat the rum to 20 degree Celsius or make a note of the temperature and use a correction table later).
2. Using the Alcoholmeter, measure the % abv. level of the rum. Make a note of the measurement. If the measurement is not done at 20 degree Celsius, use the temperature correction table to find the % abv value at 20 degree Celsius.
3. Read the % abv. listed on the label. Make a note of the value. According to EU regulations, the % abv listed on the label must be within 0,3% accuracy of the rums actual % abv.
4. Use my table and the two values found in step 2 and 3 above (example values are 35.3% and 40%) to find the sugar level in gram/Liter. In this example, I measured 35.3% so the sugar in g/L ends up somewhere between 15 and 19 g/L. In this example I would say 18g/L.
If you don't have a temperature correction table for your Alcoholmeter (In case you measure the % abv at a temperature other then the one your Alcoholmeter is calibrated at (normally 20 degree Celsius)), use a search engine and look for "Correction Table for an Alcoholometer Calibrated at 20oC"